Product description Signaling from the ligand-activated membrane receptor serine/threonine kinases to nuclear targets is mediated by a set of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as SMADs. Upon ligand binding, the receptors of the TGF-? family phosphorylate SMAD proteins (SMAD1 and SMAD2). These proteins then move into the nucleus, where they activate transcription. To carry out this function, the receptor activated SMAD 1 and 2 require association with the product of deleted in pancreatic carcinoma, locus 4 (DPC4), also known as SMAD4. SMAD4/DPC4 is also implicated as a tumor suppressor, since it is inactivated in more than half of pancreatic carcinomas and to a lesser extent in a variety of other cancers. The lack of SMAD4 expression is present in approximately 80% of cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but rarely in endometrial (0%), colorectal (0%), ovarian (3%), lung (0%), breast (2%) adenocarcinomas, and malignant melanoma (4%). SMAD4 is an important marker for confirming a diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinomas with SMAD4 protein expression had significantly longer survival than SMAD4 negative patients. Pretreatment: Heat induced epitope retrieval in 10 mM citrate buffer, pH6.0, or in 50 mM Tris buffer pH9.5, for 20 minutes is required for IHC staining on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections. Note: Dilution of the antibody in 10% normal goat serum followed by a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody-based detection is recommended. Control tissue Pacreatic adenocarcinoma. Staining Nuclear.
Specifications
Applications
IHC-P
Host
Mouse
Clonality
Monoclonal
Clone
B-8
Isotype
IgG1
Supplier
MONOSAN
Shipping & storage
Shipping condition
Blue Ice
Storage temperature
2-8°C

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